The first child of the gestational program, or full surrogate motherhood, when a surrogate mother bears an embryo of biological parents, was born in Ann Arbor (Michigan) in the USA in April 1986. The girl was conceived in vitro using sperm and egg biological parents. IVF was held at the Mount Sinai Cleveland Medical Center under the direction of Dr. Wolf Utian.
A 37-year-old biological mother had her uterus removed, and she asked her 22-year-old girlfriend, who had given birth twice safely, to carry her daughter. This program was held under the patronage of the same Noel Keane, and one of its main conditions was the observance of complete confidentiality.
The first surrogate program among relatives, when 48-year-old Patricia Anthony (Pat Anthony) successfully carried out and gave birth to three of her own grandchildren for her 25-year-old daughter Karen Ferreira-Jorge, was implemented in South Africa in October 1987. Karen and her 33-year-old husband Alsino already had a son, but the couple dreamed of four children. Karen, whose uterus was removed in 1984 due to heavy bleeding after birth, thought that their dream was not destined to be realized. Having learned about surrogacy, the spouses picked up a potential surrogate mother, but were forced to refuse her services because they were afraid that she would leave the babies to herself. Then her mother Patricia got down to business.
She literally insisted on IVF. An energetic grandmother was planted with 4 embryos from 11 received, three of them successfully took root. The births that were carried out by caesarean section were filmed by British journalists who paid $ 500,000 for the exclusive rights to this report. The children were named David, Jose and Paula. According to the law in force in South Africa (Child Status Bill), Miss Anthony was considered the mother of triplets, so she had to give up her parental rights in favor of her daughter and son-in-law, who were forced to adopt their own children.